Monday, July 30, 2007

Islam in South America

The terms Caribbean and South American refer to aggregations of countries, not to specific areas within legally defined boundaries. Thirty-one countries form the Caribbean, which is divided into English, French, Spanish, and Dutch linguistic regions. The total Muslim population by country varies from 4 to 15 percent. The largest Muslim populations are in English-speaking countries such as Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. There are small communities made up of Muslims of African descent, but the greatest number of Muslims are descendents of immigrants from India and Indonesia who came as indentured servants. In French-speaking countries, such as Guadeloupe, Guyana Françoise, Haiti, and Martinique, the Muslim community is mainly composed of African Muslim immigrants from West Africa. Martinique is also home to a very wealthy immigrant Palestinian Muslim community supported by Saudi Arabia.
Muslims on the Spanish-speaking islands Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico claim an Islamic heritage in the Americas dating back to the days of slavery and trace their history prior to slavery back to Islamic Spain during the VIII to XV centuries. Thus, many trace their ultimate cultural ancestry to northern Africa and the Moriscos—Moors who were forcibly converted to Christianity. These Muslims are aware that Moriscos were enslaved with other Africans during the Atlantic slave trade. There are also much Islamic and Moorish retention in this sector of Caribbean society, especially in language and names.
In the Caribbean, Muslims continue to experience life as minorities. Christian missionaries continue to try to convert Muslims—though there is also increasing evidence that Muslims are trying to convert Christians. In 2002, reports in local newspapers asserted that of the few conversions that take place, most are from Christianity to Islam.
The history of Muslims in Mexico is difficult to trace. Spanish conquistadors from both Cuba and Spain came to pillage Mexico’s resources in the early 1500s. The indigenous population was converted to Catholicism during this time. Many in the native population died as a result of the importation of European diseases and from starvation, as Europeans devastated the farming land and depleted water resources. Mexicans themselves regained control only in the 1900s.
Historians are divided over when Islam came to Mexico and who brought it. Some claim it was introduced by Syrian immigrants, whereas others point to Turkish immigrants. One recent (2002) study estimated that 10 percent of the Syrian-Lebanese immigrant community were Muslim. Today this community is one of the richest and contains more than 250,000 people. The history of Islam in Mexico is largely undocumented, with the exception of a sixteenthcentury book called Un Herehe y un Musulman. Written by Pascual Almazan, this recounts the exploits of Yusuf bin Alabaz, who came to Mexico after expulsion during the Reconquista in Spain. Today, Islam is a recognized entity following the establishment of the Muslim Center de Mexico in 1994 in Mexico City. There are also centers in Monterrey, Torrion, Guadalajara, and San Cristobal de las Casa.
Islam in Cuba has not been documented before the twentieth century. At the start of the twenty-first century, Muslims in Cuba continue to pray at home because there is no mosque where they can freely congregate. There is an Arab House built by a wealthy Arab in the 1940s, which houses an Arabic museum, a restaurant, and a prayer space for diplomats. Monies are currently being solicited for the building of a mosque. In the late XX century, a representative of the Muslim World League making his own solicitations on behalf of Cuban Muslims referred to the example of a small town, Pilaya de Rosacio, which has a Muslim population of 40 percent.
If the number of Muslim organizations and centers is any indication, there are Muslims all over other areas of South America. The origins of Islam in Chile have not been researched, but census reports show that in 1854 two Muslims from the Ottoman Empire came to Chile. Given that the Ottoman Empire (the last Muslim empire), which fell in 1929, covered a great deal of the Arab world, it is difficult to state ethnic origins of these immigrants. It is also only presumed that they were Muslim, for religion was not noted in the Chilean census of 1865. However, by 1895 the census did note the presence of 58 Muslims who lived in Tarapaca, Atacama, Valparaiso, and Santiago—all in the north of the country. By 1907 there were approximately 1,500 Muslims, all of them immigrants. The first Islamic institution in Chile was the Society of Muslim Union of Chile, founded in 1926. Interestingly, the numbers of Chilean Muslims rises and falls throughout the twentieth century for reasons that are unaccounted for in any reports. Through the 1970s and 1980s there were no religious leaders or mosques in Chile. In the 1990s the construction of Al-Salam Mosque was begun, following which other mosques were built in Temuco and Iquique. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it is estimated that there are 3,000 Muslims in Chile, many of whom are Chilean by birth. The majority are SunnI, but there are both Shia and Sufi communities present as well. Muslims, still a small minority group, generally face great pressure to convert to Christianity.
In times past, Rio de Janeiro was one of the disembarkation points for those millions abducted or sold from Muslim Africa. The native population learned about Islam primarily through Muslim behavior—prayer and abstention from pork and alcohol. Islamic revivals are reported to have occurred frequently enough over the centuries to leave a permanent mark. In 1899 the Cairo-based magazine Al-Manar published in its August issue an article entitled “Islam in Brazil.” Here it was noted that the Muslim communities in Rio were made up of direct descendants of Muslim slaves. During the 1920s, Arab immigrants and traders added to Brazil’s Islamic presence. Now, university students lead the way in teaching about Islam. There are currently five large Islamic organizations in Brazil: in Sa˜o Paulo, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Boa Vista, and Florianopolis.
Venezuela currently has fifteen Islamic civic associations in ten states. Arab immigrants, Venezuelans, and Creoles have come together to make Islam a known tradition. The closest estimate of when Islam came to Venezuela is “centuries ago.” Estimates of the number of Muslims range from 700,000 to almost a million. Venezuelan Muslims have many of the same problems as Muslims in other countries where Muslims are a minority and Islam is a potentially competing faith—issues revolving around dress, political participation, civic concerns, and Christian missionizing.
Muslims in Peru trace their ancestry to the Spaniards and the Moros. As Moros fled persecution in Spain, they settled in many South and Latin American countries. In Peru they have had a lasting influence on dress, food, architecture, and both the social and political systems. Women who covered their hair were called las tapadas Limenas (The covered ones from Lima). There are also the famous balcones lumenas, which are protruding balconies done in a style known as Arabescos—a term clearly referring to an Islamic heritage. Twentieth-century Islam in Peru is dominated by Palestinian Arabs who arrived in the 1940s, fleeing Jewish persecution. Today, after several aborted construction projects, Peruvian Muslims (there are no estimates of their numbers) still have no mosques, but they do have the Asociacion Islamica del Peru in Lima and a school.
Argentinean Muslims currently number hundreds of thousands, perhaps up to 800,000. If Arabs and other ethnic groups are included this number increases to three million. It is reported that Muslims first arrived in Argentina around 1870 from Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. Today, there are mosques all over the country, as well as nine Islamic centers. Bolivia traces its Islamic heritage to immigrants from the Ottoman Empire, but as with Chile the ethnicities of the Muslims who came is unknown. The first mosque however, was not commissioned until 1992, in Santa Cruz. There are already three civic organizations, known as Centro Islamico Bolivanos.
What is significant about the Islamic presence in the Caribbean and South America is that it has survived for so long. The patterns that lie behind the introduction of Islam into various countries appear to be multifold: in some countries the Islamic presence can be traced to the Atlantic slave trade; in others it is due to the influx of refugees caused by the Spanish persecution of non-Christians in Spain; in yet others it is the result of Muslims fleeing a ravaged Ottoman Empire in search of opportunities or of Arab refugees fleeing persecution by Jews in Palestine; and in others still it is attributable to the arrival of Muslim Indians, both indentured servants and immigrants seeking better opportunities. Regardless of the origin of the Islamic presence, it has endured and is currently growing.

Wednesday, July 25, 2007



The first Muslims had landed in Myanmar / Burma’s Ayeyarwady River delta, Tanintharyi coast and Rakhine as seamen in ninth century, prior to the establishment of the first Myanmar (Burmese) empire in 1055 AD by King Anawrahta of Bagan or Pagan. [1][2] [3][4][5]The dawn of the Muslim settlements and the propagation of Islam was widely documented by the Arab, Persian, European and Chinese travelers of Ninth century.[6] The current population of Myanmar Muslims are the descendants of Arabs, Persians, Turks, Moors, Indian-Muslims, sheikhs, Pakistanis, Pathans, Bengalis, Chinese Muslims and Malays who settled and intermarried with local Burmese and many ethnic Myanmar groups such as, Rakhine, Shan, Karen, Mon etc.[7][8]

The population of the Muslims increased during the British rule of Burma because of new waves of Indian Muslim Immigration. [9]This sharply declined in the years following 1941 as a result of the Indo-Burman Immigration agreement,[10]and was officially stopped following Burma's (Myanmar) independence on 4th January, 1948.

Muslims arrived in Burma as travelers, adventurers, pioneers, sailors, traders,[11]Military Personals (voluntary and mercenary)[12], and a number of them as prisoners of wars.[13] Some were reported to have taken refuge from wars, Monsoon storms and weather, shipwreck [14]and for a number of other circumstances. Some are victims of forced slavery [15]but many of them are professionals and skilled personals such as advisors to the kings and at various ranks of administration whilst others are port-authorities and mayors and traditional medicine men.[16]

Persian Muslims traveled over land, in search of China, and arrived northern Burma at Yunnan (China) border. Their colonies were recorded in Chronicles of China in 860 AD.[17][18] Myanmar Muslims were sometimes called Pathi, and Chinese Muslims are called Panthay. [19]It is widely believed that those names derived from Persi (Persian). Bago / Pegu, Dala, Thanlyin / Syriam, Taninthayi /Tenasserim, Mottama / Martaban, Myeik / Mergui and Pathein /Bassein were full of Burmese Muslim settlers and they outnumbered the local Burmese by many times. In one record, Pathein was said to be populated with Pathis.[20] In Kawzar 583 (13th Century), Bassein or Pathein was known as Pathi town under the three Indian Muslim Kings. [21] [22] [23] Arab merchants arrived Martaban, Margue. Arab settlement in the present Meik’s mid-western quarters. [24]

During Bagan King, Narathihapate, 1255-1286, in the first Sino Burman war, Kublaikhan’s Muslim Tatars attacked and occupied up to Nga Saung Chan. Mongols under Kublai Khan invaded the Pagan Kingdom. During this first Sino Burman war in 1283, Colonel Nasruddin’s Turks occupied up to Bamaw. (Kaungsin)[25] (Tarek) Turk were called, Mongol, Manchuria, Mahamaden or Panthays. [26]

] Muslims in Bagan (Pagan) Period
Byat Wi and Byat Ta

The first evidence of Muslim landing in Burma’s chronicle was recorded in the era of the first Burmese Empire of Pagan (Bagan) 1044 AD. Two Arab Muslim sailors of BYAT family, Byat Wi and Byat Ta, arrived Burmese shores, near Thaton.[27][28](There are people in Iraq, Arabia and some Surthi Northern Indian Muslims with the same sir name even at present. See Byat and Bayt) After their ship wrecked, they managed to use a plank to swim to the shores. They took refuge and stayed at the monastery of the monk in Thaton. Thaton king became afraid of them and killed the elder brother. [29] The younger brother managed to escape to Bagan and took refuge to king Anawratha. [30] He married a girl from Popa and got two sons, Shwe Byin brothers.[31]

Shwe Byin brothers

Later they also served the king as worriers,[32] even as the special agents to infiltrate the enemy’s inner circle. They were famous after they successfully infiltrated the Chinese King Utibua’s bodyguards. That event forced the Chinese to sign a peace agreement with the Burmese.[33][34]

After the war, on the way back home, they refused to contribute in the building of a pagoda at Taung Byone[35], just north of Mandalay. The brothers’ enemies left vacant the spaces for the two bricks so that the king could notice. After a brief inquiry the king ordered to punish the brothers for disobedience but they were later given death sentence. [36]

The royal raft could not move after that. Brahmans, royal consultants interpreted that, the two brothers were loyal faithful servants but unjustly punished, became Nat (spirit) and they pulled the rudder of the royal boat to show their displeasure. Then only, Anawratha ordered the building of the spirit-palace at Taung Byone and ordered the people to worship the two brothers.[37]

For five days each year Taung Byone village becomes a fairground. Taung Byone, 14 km north of Mandalay, has about 7,000 nat shrines, nearly 2,000 of them elaborate ones dedicated to those two brothers. [38][39]

King Anawratha 1044-1077 AD also had Myanmar Muslim army units and body guards. When King Anawrahta attacked Martaban, capital of Mon (Talaing) King, Mingyi Swa Saw Kae’, two Muslim officers’ army unit fiercely defended against his attack.[40]

Nga Yaman Kan

The King Anawrahta appointed a Muslim Arab [41] as a Royal teacher for his son, Prince Sawlu. That teacher’s son later became the Governor of Bago (Pegu) known as Ussa City. [42] His name was Raman Khan.[43] (Known as Nga Yaman Kan in Burmese). King Sawlu himself had given the town to his childhood friend, also an adopted brother because they were fed from the same breast as Raman Khan’s mother was the wet nurse of Prince Sawlu.[44]

Once Raman Khan won the game of dice, jumped with joy and clapped the elbows. King Sawlu was angry and challenged Rahman Khan to rebel against him with the Bago province. Raman Khan accepted the challenge and successfully trapped King Sawlu and his army in swamps.[45]Kyanzittha tried to rescue but Sawlu refused to be rescued and was later killed by Raman Khan. Rahman Khan himself was ambushed by the sniper bow-shot of Nga Sin the hunter and died.

Kyanzittha became the third king of Bagan Dynasty. While expending the empire he brought back many Indian-Muslim captives. They were settled in central Burma.[46]

Muslim sailors and traders

In the chronicles of Malaysia, during the first Melacca Empire of Parameswara in the early fifteenth century, it was recorded the Burmese (Muslims) sailors and traders were regularly arriving there. [20] Those Bago (Pegu) seamen, likely to be Muslims, were also recorded by the Arab Historians of tenth century. During fifteen to seventeen centuries, there were a lot of records of Burmese Muslim traders, sailors and settlers on the whole coast of Burma. That was from Arakan coast (Rakhine), Ayeyarwady delta and Tanintharyi coast (Including all the islands along the whole coast).[47]

During Peik Thaung Min (early Bagan dynasty, 652-660 AD), Arab travelers from Madagascar to China through East Indian Islands, visited Thaton and Martaban ports. It was recorded in Arab chronicles in 800 AD. [48]

In seventeenth century, those Muslims controlled the business and became so powerful because of their wealth. They were even appointed as Governor of Mergui, the Viceroy of the Province of Tenasserim, Port Authorities, Port Governors and Shah-bandars (senior port officials). [49] [50][51]

Muslim sailors built many mosques, but those should be more appropriately called Temples as they were equally holy to Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and Chinese. They were called Buddermokan, The so called Buddermokan on Sittway island is claimed by believers of different faiths. ... ‘Buddermokan’ [52][53][54] in memory to Badral-Din Awliya, a saint. They are found in Akyab, Sandoway and on a small island off Mergyi. [55]

Sa Nay Min Gyi King (King Sane) had two flotillas of Steam-ships, named Alarhee and Selamat, both are Arabic Islamic names. In 1711, Myanmar Missionary was sent to Mogul King Shah Alam. They used the Alarhee Ship and the captain was an Arab. [56]

Muslim prisoners of war
When Tabinshwehti, TaungooKing 1530-50 AD attacked Hanthawaddy, Muslim soldiers were helping Mons with artillery. [57] [58] [59]

Ava king Anaukpetlun captured Thanlyin or Syriam in 1613 and crucified the rebel Nat Shin Naung, and Portuguese mercenary Philip de Brito. The Indian Muslim mercenaries and five battle ships were captured. Muslim prisoners of wars were settled at the north of Shwebo in Myedu, Sagaing, Yamethin and Kyaukse.[60]

King Thalun (1629-1648)., the successor of Anaukpetlun settled those Muslims at Shwebo, Sagaing and Kyaukse. [61] Muslim prisoners of war were settled in upper Myanmar by successive Burmese kings. Myae Du near Shwebo was one of the sites. Muslim prisoners from Bago during 1539-1599 AD were the first settlers.

Tabinshwehti brought back the Muslim prisoners, after attacking Arakan in 1546 and 1549 AD.

King Alaungpaya attacked Assam and Manipur of India and brought back more Muslims to settle in Burma. These Muslims later assimilated to form core of Burmese Muslims.[62]

King Sane (Sa Nay Min Gyi) brought back several thousand Muslim prisoners of war from Sandoway and settled in Myedu in 1707 AD. Next year few thousands more were settled in those places and Taungoo. 3000 Muslims from Arakan took refuge under King Sane in 1698-1714. They were divided and settled in Taungoo, Yamethin , Nyaung Yan, Yin Taw, Meiktila, Pin Tale, Tabet Swe, Bawdi, Syi Tha, Syi Puttra, Myae du and Depayin. This Royal decree was copied from the Amarapura Royal Library in 1801 by Kyauk Ta Lone Bo. [63]

During King Bagyidaw 1819-37 rule, Maha Bandula conquered Assam and brought back 40,000 prisoners of war. About half of them were likely to be Muslims. [64] Maha Bandula and Burmese Army’s war at Ramu and Pan War were famous. Burmese captured one big cannon, 200 firearms, mixed Sepoy Indian 200. Muslims amongst them were relocated at the south of Amarapura that is Myittha river’s south. [65]

Royal Muslim-soldiers

When the famous Raza Dirit attacked and conquered Dagon (Yangon), Muslim soldiers defended from the Burmese side and Raza Dirit also had to use the help of Muslim sailors.[66]

The army of King Anawratha (eleven century) already boasted Indian units and bodyguards, Muslims apparently among them. [67]

When Tabinshwehti attacked Martaban in 1541 AD, many Muslims resisted strongly. .[68]

When Bayinnaung successfully conquered Ayuthaya (Thailand) in 1568-1569 AD he use the help of Muslim artillerymen. King Alaungpaya 1752-1760 AD conquered Syrim. Muslim prisoners of war were forced to serve in his army.[69]

Pagan Min 1846-1853 AD appointed U Shwe Oh , a Burmese Muslim, as the Governor of the Capital city, Amarapura. His personal secretary U Paing (also a Burmese Muslim) donated a two- mile long bride, made of teakwood across the Taung Tha Man Lake. In 1850, the Governor of Bagan was also said to be a Muslim.[70]

Burmese kings employed a lot of Muslims in his inner circle: Royal bodyguards, eunuchs, couriers, interpreters and advisers.[71] [72]

Muslims in Konbaung Dynasty

Muslims in Amarapura

Muslims in Amarapura were about 20,000 families, at the time of Innwa (Ava) kingdom (1855 AD). Most of them were Sunni Muslims. [73]

During the Konbaung dynasty Alaungpaya’s attack of Mons near Pyay, Mon warrior Talapan was assisted by Muslim soldiers. Because of their artillery fire, a lot of Burmese soldiers were wounded and died. [74]

In 1755 Alaungpaya conquered Dagon and renamed it Yangon (meaning 'The End of Strife'). Mon soldiers surrendered and four Muslim rich men also surrendered with the expensive presents, ammunitions and four warships. [75] Although conquered Yangon there are more battles to fight with Mons. So Alaungpaya rearranged the army. Pyre Mamet was one of the “Thwe Thauk Gyi” assigned to serve as the Royal Bodyguard. [76]Alaungpaya attacked Thanlyin or Syriam, and many Muslim artillery men were captured. [77]Alaungpaya captured four warships and Muslim soldiers. They were later allowed to serve him. [78] On the page 203 of the Twin Thin Teik Win’s Chronicles of Alaungpaya’s battles, it was recorded as only three warships.

After Alaungpaya captured Pegu, and at the parade, those Pathi Muslim soldiers were allowed to march with their traditional uniforms. [79] Four hundred Pathi Indian soldiers participated in the Royal Salute March. [80] [81]

King Bodawpaya Bodaw U Wine (Padon Mayor, Padon Min) (1781-1819) of the Konbaung Dynasty founded Amarapura as his new capital in 1783. He was the first Burmese King who recognized his Muslim subjects officially by the following Royal decree. He appointed Abid Shah Hussaini and assistants, Nga Shwe Lu and Nga Shwe Aye to decide and give judgment regarding the conflicts and problems amongst his Burmese Muslim subjects. [82] Abid Shah Hussaini burial place was well known as a shrine in Amarapura Lin Zin Gone Darga.

Before Ramu and Pan War battles, Captain Nay Myo Gone Narrat Khan Sab Bo’s 70 Cavalry (horse) Regiment's marching among the Burmese army, was watched by Maha Bandula. [83]Burmese Muslim Horsemen were famous in that Khan Sab Bo’s 70 Cavalry (horse) Regiment. Khan Sab Bo’s name was Abdul Karim Khan and was the father of the Captain Wali Khan, famous Wali Khan Cavalry Regiment during King Mindon and King Thibaw.

Khan Sab Bo was sent as an Ambassador to Indo China by Bagyidaw. During Bagyidaw’s reign, in 1824, Gaw Taut Pallin battle was famous. British used 10,000 soldiers but defeated. During that battle Khan Sab Bo’s 100 horsemen fought vigorously and bravely. [84]More than 1300 loyal brave Kala Pyo Muslims (means young Indian soldiers) were awarded with colourful velvety uniforms. [85]

When Konbaung Dynasty’s 8th. Tharrawaddy Min (King) marched Okkalapa, more than 100 Pathi Muslim Indian Cannoners took part. [86] There are also a lot of Muslim soldiers in other parts of the Tharrawaddy Min’s army.

But during the Konbaung Dynasty’s 9th. Pagan Min 1846-52 there was a blemish in Muslim’s history. Royal Capital Amarapura’s Mayor Bai Sab and his clerk U Pain were arrested and sentenced to death.

King Mindon

During Pagan Min reign, Mindon Prince and brother Ka Naung Prince run away with their servants to Shwebo and started a rebellion. U Bo and U Yuet were the two Muslims who accompanied the princes. Some Kala Pyo Burmese Muslim artillery soldiers followed them. [87]U Boe later built and donated the June Mosque, which is still maintained in 27th. street, Mandalay. U Yuet became the Royal Chief Chef.

Regent Prince Ka Naung sent scholars to study abroad. Malar Mon @ U Pwint was a Burmese Muslim sent to study the explosives. He became the Yan Chet won or Minister of explosives.

In the Royal Defence Army, many Cannoners were Kindar Kala Pyos and Myedu Muslims. [88]

In 1853 King Mindon held a donation ceremony. He ordered to prepare halal food for his Muslim soldiers from, Akbart Horse Cavalry, Wali Khan Horse Cavalry, Manipur Horse Cavalry and Sar Tho Horse Cavalry altogether about 700 of them.

U Soe was the Royal tailor of King Mindon . [89]

Kabul Maulavi was appointed an Islamic Judge by King Mindon to decide according to the Islamic rules and customs on Muslim affairs.

Captain Min Htin Min Yazar’s 400 Muslims participated to clear the land for building a new Mandalay city.

Burmese Muslims were given specific quarters to settle in the new city of Mandalay[90]

Sigaing dan
Kone Yoe dan
Taung Balu
Oh Bo
Setkyer Ngwezin
June Amoke Tan
Wali Khan Quarter
Taik Tan Qr
Koyandaw Qr (Royal Bodyguards’ Qr)
Ah Choke Tan
Kala Pyo Qr
Panthay dan for the Burmese Chinese Muslims. [91]
In those quarters, lands for 20 Mosques were allocated out side the Palace wall. [92] [93]

Sigaing dan Mosque
Kone Yoe Mosque
Taung Balu Mosque
June Mosque
Koyandaw Mosque
Wali Khan Mosque
Kala Pyo Mosque
Seven lots of lands for Setkyer Ngwezin
King Mindon donated his palace teak pillars to build a mosque at North Obo in central Mandalay. (The pillars which failed to place properly at the exact time given by astrologers.)
The broadminded King Mindon also permitted a mosque to be built on the granted site for the Panthays (Burmese Chinese Muslims)[94][95] Photos of Mandalay Panthay mosque.[21]
Inside the Palace wall, for the Royal Body Guards, King Mindon himself donated and started the building of the Mosque by laying the Gold foundation at the South-eastern part of the Palace located near the present Independent Monument. This Mosque was called the Shwe Pannet Mosque. That mosque was destroyed by the British to build the Polo playground.

King Mindon (1853-78) donated the rest house in Mecca for his Muslim subjects performing Hajj.[96] Nay Myo Gonna Khalifa U Pho Mya and Haji U Swe Baw were ordered to supervise the building. The Kind donated the balance needed to complete the building which was started with the donations from the Burmese Muslims. This was recorded in the Myaedu Mosque Imam U Shwe Taung’s poems.[97]

King Thibaw

Muslim soldiers who participated in the Royal Parade during King Thibaw’s reign were_

Captain Bo Min Htin Kyaw and his 350 Kindar Kala Pyo artillery soldiers.
Setkyer Cannon Regiment Captain Hashim and 113 Cannoners
Mingalar Cannon Regiment Captain U Kye and 113 Cannoners
Mingalar Amyoke Sulay Kone Captain U Maung and 113 Cannoners
Mingalar Amyoke Bone Oh Captain U Yauk and 113 Cannoners. [98]
After King Thibaw’s declaration of war on the British, Burmese Army formed three groups to descend and defend the British attack. One of those, Taung Twingyi defence chief was, Akhbat Horse Calvery Chief, Mayor of Pin Lae Town, Minister Maha Min Htin Yar Zar. His name was U Chone when he was the Chief Clerk of Kala Pyo Army. During the Myin Kun Myin Khone Tain revolt, he carried the Chief queen of Mindon on his back to safety. So he was rewarded with the Mayor position of Pin Lae Myo which was located 12 miles south of Myittha. [99]

Under Maha Min Htin Yar Zar there were 1629 soldiers:

Kindar Captain Bo Min Hla Min Htin Kyaw Thu’s 335 Kindar soldiers two cannon and Sein let Yae 3 regiments
Shwe Pyi Captain Bo Min Hla Min Htin Thamain Than Like and Shwe Pyi 100 soldiers, one cannon and Sein let Yae 2 regiments
Wali Khan’s 990 Akhbat Horse Calvery and Sein let Yae 20 regiments
Specially trained 200 soldiers.[100]
On 28 November 1885, after the British took over the administration, the British revamp the new administration with, Kin Won Min Gyi, Tai Tar Min Gyi, the Minister Maha Min Htin Yar Zar U Chone was included as the representative of the Parliament.

Muslim Mogul Emperor of India
The last Muslim Mogul Emperor of India, Abu Za’far Saraj al-Din Bahadur Shah and his family members and some followers were exiled to Yangon, Myanmar. He died in Yangon and was buried on 7.11.1862.[101]
After the British took over the whole Burma all sub groups of Burmese-Muslims formed numerous organizations, active in social welfare and religious affairs.

Mosques in Yangon
1.Surtee Mosque

Surtee mosque is situated in Mogul Road and is one of the biggest mosques in Yangon. It was built by Surtees who migrated from India during the World War II. The mosque displays architecture that's similar to the mosques in India. Most people who pray in this mosque are surtees. Most weddings that take place in this mosque are those of the surtees and the chief reason why the surtees have their marriage in this mosque is because the way the mosque is built reflects their own culture. The mosque has constant renovations, but the basic architecture is never changed.

2.Rakine Jamae Mosque(Arakan Mosque)

Rakine Jame Mosque is situated in Yangon. It is located in 130th street in Mingalar Townyunt Township. It is one of the biggest mosque in Yangon. The mosque was built at the time of Burmese King Dynasty. The exact time is still unknown. Rakine Mosque was established by the people(Arakans) who came from Rakhine state (a state of Myanmar). These people gave the name of the mosque as Arakan Mosque. However this name was changed into Rakhine Mosque.